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ubuntu的ubuntu–vg-ubuntu–lv磁盘扩容

2024年03月10日 经验杂谈 暂无评论 阅读 43 次

在我们安装ubuntu时,如果选择的是自动分区,就会按照逻辑卷的形式来分区,并且只分配100G其余的并不会被分配

这对我们大多数情况来说都是不合理的,所以,如何扩充呢

下面以一个小的案例来说明如何扩充

问题

磁盘空间已满

Usage of /: 99.8% of 9.75GB

df、fdisk查看磁盘占用情况

df -h
Filesystem                         Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
tmpfs                              197M  1.4M  196M   1% /run
/dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv  9.8G  9.3G     0 100% /
tmpfs                              983M     0  983M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                              5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
/dev/sda2                          1.7G  253M  1.4G  16% /boot
tmpfs                              197M  4.0K  197M   1% /run/user/1000
fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 25 GiB, 26843545600 bytes, 52428800 sectors
Disk model: Virtual disk
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt

Device       Start      End  Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1     2048     4095     2048    1M BIOS boot
/dev/sda2     4096  3674111  3670016  1.8G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda3  3674112 33552383 29878272 14.2G Linux filesystem

查看磁盘挂载情况

lsblk
NAME                      MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS
sda                         8:0    0    25G  0 disk
├─sda1                      8:1    0     1M  0 part
├─sda2                      8:2    0   1.8G  0 part /boot
└─sda3                      8:3    0  14.2G  0 part
  └─ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv 253:0    0  9.8G  0 lvm  /

可以看到sda3有15G,但是只分配了10G。

命令vgdisplay可以查看lvm卷组的信息;

vgdisplay

如果看到 Free PE / Size > 0,表示还有扩容空间。

解决

这里分两种情况进行处理:

  • LV(Logical Volume) 没有用尽 VG(Volume Group)。
  • VG(Volume Group) 没有用尽 PV(Physical Volume),或者 PV(Physical Volume) 没有关联物理分区。

LV 使用全部 VG

使用lvresize扩容剩下所有空间。

#lvextend -L 10G /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv      //增大或减小至19G
#lvextend -L +10G /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv     //增加10G
#lvreduce -L -10G /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv     //减小10G
#lvresize -l  +100%FREE /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv   //按百分比扩

lvresize -l  +100%FREE /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv

执行resize2fs使扩容生效 【注意:不执行这个命令以上修改是不会生效的!】

resize2fs /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv
resize2fs 1.46.5 (30-Dec-2021)
Filesystem at /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv is mounted on /; on-line resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 2, new_desc_blocks = 2
The filesystem on /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv is now 3734528 (4k) blocks long.

查看结果

vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  VG Size               <14.25 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              3647
  Alloc PE / Size       3647 / <14.25 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0

VG 关联物理分区进行扩容

补充:本系统使用的是虚拟机,所以需要在虚拟机设置中先扩容“物理”硬盘空间。

接下来采用的方法是:不修改原有分区,在新的空间上新建分区,并添加到LVM的LV中。

创建分区 sda4,并设置为 lvm 类型:

# 修改前分区状态
$ lsblk
NAME                      MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS
sda                         8:0    0    25G  0 disk
├─sda1                      8:1    0     1M  0 part
├─sda2                      8:2    0   1.8G  0 part /boot
└─sda3                      8:3    0  14.2G  0 part
  └─ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv 253:0    0  14.2G  0 lvm  /

# 开始分区
$ sudo fdisk /dev/sda

Command (m for help): m  #查看帮助

Help:

  GPT
   M   enter protective/hybrid MBR

  Generic
   d   delete a partition
   F   list free unpartitioned space
   l   list known partition types
   n   add a new partition
   p   print the partition table
   t   change a partition type
   v   verify the partition table
   i   print information about a partition

  Misc
   m   print this menu
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

  Script
   I   load disk layout from sfdisk script file
   O   dump disk layout to sfdisk script file

  Save & Exit
   w   write table to disk and exit
   q   quit without saving changes

  Create a new label
   g   create a new empty GPT partition table
   G   create a new empty SGI (IRIX) partition table
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   s   create a new empty Sun partition table


Command (m for help): p  #打印分区

Disk /dev/sda: 25 GiB, 26843545600 bytes, 52428800 sectors
Disk model: Virtual disk
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt

Device       Start      End  Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1     2048     4095     2048    1M BIOS boot
/dev/sda2     4096  3674111  3670016  1.8G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda3  3674112 33552383 29878272 14.2G Linux filesystem

Command (m for help): n  # 新建分区
Partition number (4-128, default 4):   # 使用默认的序号4
First sector (33552384-52428766, default 33552384):  #使用默认的开始
Last sector, +/-sectors or +/-size{K,M,G,T,P} (33552384-52428766, default 52428766):  #使用默认的结束  也就也就意味着使用剩下的全部

Created a new partition 4 of type 'Linux filesystem' and of size 9 GiB.

Command (m for help): p   # 打印分区
Disk /dev/sda: 25 GiB, 26843545600 bytes, 52428800 sectors
Disk model: Virtual disk
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt

Device        Start      End  Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1      2048     4095     2048    1M BIOS boot
/dev/sda2      4096  3674111  3670016  1.8G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda3   3674112 33552383 29878272 14.2G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda4  33552384 52428766 18876383    9G Linux filesystem

Command (m for help): t  #改变分区类型
Partition number (1-4, default 4):  #默认选择刚刚的4
Partition type or alias (type L to list all): lvm  # 改编成lvm

Changed type of partition 'Linux filesystem' to 'Linux LVM'.

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 25 GiB, 26843545600 bytes, 52428800 sectors
Disk model: Virtual disk
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt

Device        Start      End  Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1      2048     4095     2048    1M BIOS boot
/dev/sda2      4096  3674111  3670016  1.8G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda3   3674112 33552383 29878272 14.2G Linux filesystem
/dev/sda4  33552384 52428766 18876383    9G Linux LVM

Command (m for help): w  # 写入保存并退出
The partition table has been altered.
Syncing disks.

建物理分区并关联到LVM

$ sudo lsblk
NAME                      MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS
..
sda                         8:0    0    25G  0 disk
├─sda1                      8:1    0     1M  0 part
├─sda2                      8:2    0   1.8G  0 part /boot
├─sda3                      8:3    0  14.2G  0 part
│ └─ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv 253:0    0  14.2G  0 lvm  /
└─sda4                      8:4    0     9G  0 part

# 创建物理卷PV
$ sudo pvcreate /dev/sda4
  Physical volume "/dev/sda4" successfully created.

# 查看物理卷PV
$ sudo pvdisplay
  --- Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/sda3
  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
  PV Size               <14.25 GiB / not usable 0
  Allocatable           yes (but full)
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              3647
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          3647

  "/dev/sda4" is a new physical volume of "9.00 GiB"
  --- NEW Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/sda4
  VG Name
  PV Size               9.00 GiB
  Allocatable           NO
  PE Size               0
  Total PE              0
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          0

# 查看卷组VG
$ sudo vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  VG Size               <14.25 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              3647
  Alloc PE / Size       3647 / <14.25 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0

# 扩容卷组VG
$ sudo vgextend ubuntu-vg /dev/sda4
  Volume group "ubuntu-vg" successfully extended

# 查看卷组VG
$ sudo vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  VG Size               23.24 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              5950
  Alloc PE / Size       3647 / <14.25 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       2303 / <9.00 GiB

# 扩容逻辑卷LV
$ sudo lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
  Size of logical volume ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv changed from <14.25 GiB (3647 extents) to 23.24 GiB (5950 extents).
  Logical volume ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv successfully resized.

# 查看卷组VG
$ sudo vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
  System ID
  Format                lvm2
  VG Size               23.24 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              5950
  Alloc PE / Size       5950 / 23.24 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0

# 执行修改
$ sudo resize2fs /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
resize2fs 1.46.5 (30-Dec-2021)
Filesystem at /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv is mounted on /; on-line resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 2, new_desc_blocks = 3
The filesystem on /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv is now 6092800 (4k) blocks long.

# 查看结果
$ df -h
Filesystem                         Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
tmpfs                              197M  1.6M  195M   1% /run
# 可以看到/已经变成了扩容后的容量
/dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv   23G  9.2G   13G  43% /
tmpfs                              983M     0  983M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                              5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
/dev/sda2                          1.7G  253M  1.4G  16% /boot
tmpfs                              197M  4.0K  197M   1% /run/user/1000

$ sudo lsblk
NAME                      MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS
sda                         8:0    0    25G  0 disk
├─sda1                      8:1    0     1M  0 part
├─sda2                      8:2    0   1.8G  0 part /boot
├─sda3                      8:3    0  14.2G  0 part
│ └─ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv 253:0    0  23.2G  0 lvm  /
└─sda4                      8:4    0     9G  0 part
  └─ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv 253:0    0  23.2G  0 lvm  /

完成

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